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Computer Science

I Pressed My Words Here. Will You Read ?

 
 
 

日志

 
 

Ubuntu 相关命令文档  

2010-11-24 16:24:58|  分类: With Ubuntu |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |
UbuntuSkills(Ubuntu 命令技巧 )

UbuntuManul: Ubuntu小技巧

Unix命令大全

IRC基本命令说明
IRC-irssi http://wiki.ubuntu-tw.org/index.php?title=HowToJoinUbtwIRC

#修改文件权限:(让非root身份能够对指定root所有文件夹进行写入操作)
sudo chmod a+rwx [folderDirection]

#修改文件所有者:
sudo chown [username] [folderDirection]

#回收站在哪里:
Ubuntu10.04 Gnome 2.30.2 是在  $HOME/.local/share/Trash/files/
Ubuntu8.04 Gnome 2.22.2 以后在 $HOME/.local/share/Trash/
Ubuntu8.04 之前在 $HOME/.Trash/


UNIX知识2——UNIX常用操作 http://hi.baidu.com/mathspace/blog/item/62de3c1fe70934cfa686693f.html
在UNIX命令操作中有一些特殊键,列表如下:

Ctrl + d 结束键盘输入或退出当前shell
Del 中断键,停止当前动作回到shell
Ctrl+s 暂停屏幕输出
Ctrl+q 继续屏幕输出
Ctrl+u kill键,删除光标所在行的所有字符
Esc 结束当前的操作状态(如vi


Gnome快捷键
这些快捷键,可以在System - Preferences - Keyboard Short-cuts 中设置。

純鍵盤

Alt + ESC 在不同程式窗口間切換

Alt + Tab 為了兼容Windows下的Alt + Tab組合鍵習慣,提供的第二個“在不同程式窗口間切換”

Alt + F4 關閉窗口

Alt + F5 取消最大化窗口 (恢復窗口原來的大小)

Alt + F7 移動窗口 (注: 在窗口最大化的狀態下無效)

Alt + F8 改變窗口大小 (注: 在窗口最大化的狀態下無效)

Alt + F9 最小化窗口

Alt + F10 最大化窗口

Alt + Space 打開窗口的控制菜單 (點擊窗口左上角圖標出現的菜單)


Ctrl + Shift +NumLock 开启/关闭小键盘区域控制鼠标功能。


查看内存

dmidecode |grep -A16 "Memory Device"


释放内存
#!/bin/bash
##
# sudo sync && echo bash -c 'echo 1 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches';
# This script flushes the file system buffers and clears memory caches.

#
# From the man page:
#
# /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches (since Linux 2.6.16)
#
# Writing to this file causes the kernel to drop clean caches, dentries and
# inodes from memory, causing that memory to become free.
#
# To free pagecache, use echo 1 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches
# To free dentries and inodes, use echo 2 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches
# To free pagecache, dentries and inodes, use echo 3 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches
#
# @article:How To Clean Memory Cache In Linux (>=2.6.16)
# @Website:http://bryan.ravensight.org/2010/12/how-to-clear-memory-cache-in-linux-2-6-16/

# @Author Bryan C. Geraghty <bryan@ravensight.org>
# @Since 2010-11-01
##
 
sudo sync && sudo bash -c 'echo 3 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches';
#!/bin/bash
###
# #To free pagecache:
# # * echo 1 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches
# #To free dentries and inodes:
# # * echo 2 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches
# #To free pagecache, dentries and inodes:
# # * echo 3 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches
# @webiste:http://www.linuxinsight.com/proc_sys_vm_drop_caches.html
####
在当前目录及其子目录下,查找指定文字内容,并显示其所在行文本(包括行数),及所在文件名称:
#在当前目录下查找字符串“testsql”
# find . -name "*" -exec grep -i -n --color=auto "testsql" {} \; -print

find {$START_DIR文件夹路径} -name {$FILE_NAME_FORMAT文件名格式,支持正则表达式过滤} -exec grep -i -n --color=auto {$STRING_TO_FIND要查找的文本内容} {} \; -print
#在js和xml文件中查找关键字keywords,并将结果写入~/keywords文件
find ../ \( -name "*.js" -o -name "*.xml" \) -exec grep -i -o --color=auto keywords {} \; -print >> ~/keywords


解码器

sudo apt-get install gstreamer0.10-ffmpeg gstreamer0.10-pitfdll gstreamer0.10-plugins-bad gstreamer0.10-plugins-bad-multiverse gstreamer0.10-plugins-base gstreamer0.10-plugins-base-apps gstreamer0.10-plugins-good gstreamer0.10-plugins-ugly gstreamer0.10-plugins-ugly-multiverse libgstreamer0.10-0 libgstreamer-plugins-base0.10-0

# 按进程名称排列打印进程信息(名称在第14列时):
ps -Al | sort -k 14 | more
参考:Linux下实现sort对某列按照某种方式来排序 http://www.justwinit.cn/post/3908/

终端下调整系统音量命令:
alsamixer


终端下录屏命令(图形界面下,打开终端也可以录):(注意,当我在12.04中运行ffmpeg时,被告知,此程序将会被avconv替换,不过参数看上去差不多,例如:will@UbuntuVWill:~$ avconv -f x11grab -s `xdpyinfo | grep 'dimensions:'|awk '{print $2}'` -r 25 -i :0.0 -same_quant ~/diff-options-of-vim-gvim.mp4)(-same_quant 和 ffmpeg中的-sameq参数同意)
ffmpeg -f x11grab -s 1280X800 -r 20 -i :0.0 -sameq ~/computerScience.blog.163.com.mpg
说明下, -s是要录屏的范围(size),-r为平率Hz值,-i是输入文件路径(这里是以屏幕左上角为原点,x轴偏移量0,y轴偏移0开始,:0.0+10,20表示x偏移10,y偏移20。man ffmpeg里面有介绍),-sameq为录像质量和基于VBR的源相同。 最后 ~/computerScience.blog.163.com.mpg是保存录屏路径。

录制声音,首先参考:
arecord -L
列表中的各项。其各项第一行便可作为录音的-i 的参数值。
可:
ffmpeg -f alsa -ac 2 -i default -acodec mp2 -ab 128k test.mp3
以前在ubuntu10.10系统上我这么用也行(现在找不到/dev/dsp了):
ffmpeg -f oss -ar 44100 -i /dev/dsp -acodec mp2 -ab 128k test.mp3
可用aumix将录音源调成麦克风。除oss还有其他选项,如没有找到/dev/dsp,发现alsa可用:avconv -f alsa -i hw:0 alsaout.wav (相见man avconv)
有时,声卡设置问题,会导致录音无法录制到系统内的声音。这时可以使用pavucontrol 进行修改设置。


当然上面的录屏没有声音,如果要录制屏幕时待上声音,那么就应该这么写:
ffmpeg -f oss -i /dev/dsp -ar 22050 -ab 128k -f x11grab -s 1280X800 -r 20 -i :0.0 -sameq ~/computerScience.blog.163.com.mpg
就是在之前的命令上加上 -f oss -i /dev/dsp 。-ar 22050這是采样率,一般人的听力范围为20Hz-20kHz,20k即20000。-ab 是比特率。
ffmpeg -f oss -i /dev/dsp -ar 22050 -ab 128k -acodec aac -f x11grab -s 1024X768 -r 15 -i :0.0+128,0 -sameq ~/computerScience.blog.163.com.mpg
或者:
ffmpeg -f alsa -ac 2 -i default -f x11grab -s `xdpyinfo|grep 'dimensions:'|awk '{print $2}'` -r 20 -i :0.0 ~/test.mp4
或者:
  avconv -f alsa -ac 2 -i default -f x11grab -s `xdpyinfo | grep 'dimensions:'|awk '{print $2}'` -r 25 -i :0.0 -same_quant ~/test.mp4
注意:在文件名前可能需要加 -strict experimental

更多请参考: ubuntu下折腾ffmpeg小记(音视频录制、转换) http://hi.baidu.com/nxswxxg/blog/item/9834730f1bdbe8fdab6457a8.html 此文讲解得比较透彻。
FFmpeg技巧 http://www.bitbi.biz/tec/ffmpeg%E6%8A%80%E5%B7%A7-326
http://www.commandlinefu.com/commands/view/148/capture-video-of-a-linux-desktop
How to Record Your Desktop Using FFmpeg on Ubuntu Linux http://zhanglongqi.com/archives/997

终端下视频格式转换(转为mp4):
ffmpeg -i ~/computerScience.blog.163.com.rmvb -f mp4  -s 1280X800 -r 29.97 ~/computerScience.blog.163.com.mp4
说 明下, -i 这里是要被转换的文件 -r这里通常设置值为15或29.97,也可根据实际情况设置,原因可以搜下。(如果画质存在质量问题,请考虑-sameq这个参数)
如果ffmpeg不支持rmvb,可参考:让ffmpeg支持RMVB解码 http://hi.baidu.com/yeyingxian/blog/item/a21e453d4a714be83c6d97b5.html

终端下视频片段截取:

ffmpeg -i A.mp4 -ss 00:00:02 -t 00:00:30 -acodec copy -vcodec copy B.mp4
说 明下,“ -i 后面为想要截取视频的目标文件,文件填写可以查看上面的小技巧。-ss 后面的是开始截取的时间 -t 后面是要截取的长度。即是从开始点到结束点需要截取的时间长度。两者时间格式相同,同为hh:mm:ss (无需加括号)。-vcodec copy -acodec copy 表示音视频不转码 直接复制码流http://my.opera.com/npctalk/blog/2012/04/11/ffmpeg
2013-3-23 21:40:11 没有找到/dev/dsp 而/dev/dri/card0又说参数有问题,反复尝试得到:
sudo ffmpeg -f alsa -i hw:0 -f x11grab -s 1600x900 -i :0.0+0,0 -sameq ~/test.mpg
sudo ffmpeg -f alsa -i pulse -f x11grab -s 1600x900 -i :0.0+0,0 -sameq ~/test.mpg
(ps:/dev/video0居然是摄像头,吓出冷汗。/dev/fb0好像是后台)

终端下视频片段压缩:
ffmpeg -i A.mp4 -s 640x360 -acodec copy -r 15 -metadata title="Title" -metadata year="2010" B.mp4
说 明:-s 压缩画质大小(分辨率)所以没有-vcodec copy,-r 设置输出针率为15,原视频可能会是29.94的针率,这样能将文件大小减半。压缩后音质不变。-metadata为设置文件属性值。http://wiki.multimedia.cx/index.php?title=FFmpeg_Metadata
————————————————————

————————————————————
终端下下载文件:
wget -c http://computerscience.blog.163.com -O computerscience.blog.163.com.htm
说 明下,-c指定为继续之前的下载,即断点续传,如不需要则可以不要这个参数;-O指定下载内容保存为computerscience.blog.163.com.htm。

系统報/boot空间只有9MB。于是开始第一次移除旧的kernel image。
参考:
How to: Linux delete or remove kernel    http://www.cyberciti.biz/faq/debian-redhat-linux-delete-kernel-command/
Kernal Information    http://www.unix.com/unix-dummies-questions-answers/35367-kernal-information.html
终端下执行:
dpkg --list | grep kernel\ image
得到所有已经安装的内核版本列表:
ii  linux-image-2.6.32-32-generic-pae     2.6.32-32.62                                    Linux kernel image for version 2.6.32 on x86
ii  linux-image-2.6.32-33-generic-pae     2.6.32-33.72                                    Linux kernel image for version 2.6.32 on x86
ii  linux-image-2.6.32-34-generic-pae     2.6.32-34.77                                    Linux kernel image for version 2.6.32 on x86
ii  linux-image-2.6.32-35-generic-pae     2.6.32-35.78                                    Linux kernel image for version 2.6.32 on x86
ii  linux-image-2.6.32-36-generic-pae     2.6.32-36.79                                    Linux kernel image for version 2.6.32 on x86
ii  linux-image-2.6.32-37-generic-pae     2.6.32-37.81                                    Linux kernel image for version 2.6.32 on x86
ii  linux-image-2.6.32-38-generic-pae     2.6.32-38.83                                    Linux kernel image for version 2.6.32 on x86
ii  linux-image-2.6.32-39-generic-pae     2.6.32-39.86                                    Linux kernel image for version 2.6.32 on x86
ii  linux-image-2.6.32-40-generic-pae     2.6.32-40.87                                    Linux kernel image for version 2.6.32 on x86
ii  linux-image-2.6.32-41-generic-pae     2.6.32-41.94                                    Linux kernel image for version 2.6.32 on x86
ii  linux-image-2.6.32-42-generic-pae     2.6.32-42.96                                    Linux kernel image for version 2.6.32 on x86
ii  linux-image-2.6.32-43-generic-pae     2.6.32-43.97                                    Linux kernel image for version 2.6.32 on x86
ii  linux-image-2.6.32-44-generic-pae     2.6.32-44.98                                    Linux kernel image for version 2.6.32 on x86
ii  linux-image-generic-pae               2.6.32.44.51                                    Generic Linux kernel image
执行:
uname -a
得到当前内核版本:
Linux notBills-laptop 2.6.32-44-generic-pae #98-Ubuntu SMP Mon Sep 24 17:47:51 UTC 2012 i686 GNU/Linux
开始移除旧内核,执行:
sudo apt-get remove linux-image-2.6.32-3[3-9]{1}-generic-pae
得到交互信息:
Reading package lists... Done
Building dependency tree      
Reading state information... Done
Note, selecting linux-image-2.6.32-36-generic-pae for regex 'linux-image-2.6.32-3[3-9]{1}-generic-pae'
Note, selecting linux-image-2.6.32-33-generic-pae for regex 'linux-image-2.6.32-3[3-9]{1}-generic-pae'
Note, selecting linux-image-2.6.32-37-generic-pae for regex 'linux-image-2.6.32-3[3-9]{1}-generic-pae'
Note, selecting linux-image-2.6.32-34-generic-pae for regex 'linux-image-2.6.32-3[3-9]{1}-generic-pae'
Note, selecting linux-image-2.6.32-38-generic-pae for regex 'linux-image-2.6.32-3[3-9]{1}-generic-pae'
Note, selecting linux-image-2.6.32-35-generic-pae for regex 'linux-image-2.6.32-3[3-9]{1}-generic-pae'
Note, selecting linux-image-2.6.32-39-generic-pae for regex 'linux-image-2.6.32-3[3-9]{1}-generic-pae'
The following packages will be REMOVED:
  linux-image-2.6.32-33-generic-pae linux-image-2.6.32-34-generic-pae linux-image-2.6.32-35-generic-pae linux-image-2.6.32-36-generic-pae
  linux-image-2.6.32-37-generic-pae linux-image-2.6.32-38-generic-pae linux-image-2.6.32-39-generic-pae
0 upgraded, 0 newly installed, 7 to remove and 0 not upgraded.
After this operation, 697MB disk space will be freed.
Do you want to continue [Y/n]?

yes后得到:
(Reading database ... 438740 files and directories currently installed.)
Removing linux-image-2.6.32-33-generic-pae ...
Examining /etc/kernel/prerm.d.
run-parts: executing /etc/kernel/prerm.d/dkms 2.6.32-33-generic-pae /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-33-generic-pae
Running postrm hook script /usr/sbin/update-grub.
Generating grub.cfg ...
Found linux image: /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-44-generic-pae
Found initrd image: /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-44-generic-pae
Found linux image: /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-43-generic-pae
Found initrd image: /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-43-generic-pae
Found linux image: /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-42-generic-pae
Found initrd image: /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-42-generic-pae
Found linux image: /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-41-generic-pae
Found initrd image: /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-41-generic-pae
Found linux image: /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-40-generic-pae
Found initrd image: /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-40-generic-pae
Found linux image: /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-39-generic-pae
Found initrd image: /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-39-generic-pae
Found linux image: /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-38-generic-pae
Found initrd image: /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-38-generic-pae
Found linux image: /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-37-generic-pae
Found initrd image: /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-37-generic-pae
Found linux image: /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-36-generic-pae
Found initrd image: /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-36-generic-pae
Found linux image: /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-35-generic-pae
Found initrd image: /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-35-generic-pae
Found linux image: /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-34-generic-pae
Found initrd image: /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-34-generic-pae
Found linux image: /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-32-generic-pae
Found initrd image: /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-32-generic-pae
Found memtest86+ image: /memtest86+.bin
done
Removing linux-image-2.6.32-34-generic-pae ...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
done
Removing linux-image-2.6.32-39-generic-pae ...
Examining /etc/kernel/prerm.d.
run-parts: executing /etc/kernel/prerm.d/dkms 2.6.32-39-generic-pae /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-39-generic-pae
Uninstalling: vboxhost 4.1.10 (2.6.32-39-generic-pae) (i686)

-------- Uninstall Beginning --------
Module:  vboxhost
Version: 4.1.10
Kernel:  2.6.32-39-generic-pae (i686)
-------------------------------------

Status: Before uninstall, this module version was ACTIVE on this kernel.

vboxdrv.ko:
 - Uninstallation
   - Deleting from: /lib/modules/2.6.32-39-generic-pae/updates/dkms/
 - Original module
   - No original module was found for this module on this kernel.
   - Use the dkms install command to reinstall any previous module version.

vboxnetflt.ko:
 - Uninstallation
   - Deleting from: /lib/modules/2.6.32-39-generic-pae/updates/dkms/
 - Original module
   - No original module was found for this module on this kernel.
   - Use the dkms install command to reinstall any previous module version.

vboxnetadp.ko:
 - Uninstallation
   - Deleting from: /lib/modules/2.6.32-39-generic-pae/updates/dkms/
 - Original module
   - No original module was found for this module on this kernel.
   - Use the dkms install command to reinstall any previous module version.

vboxpci.ko:
 - Uninstallation
   - Deleting from: /lib/modules/2.6.32-39-generic-pae/updates/dkms/
 - Original module
   - No original module was found for this module on this kernel.
   - Use the dkms install command to reinstall any previous module version.
depmod.......

DKMS: uninstall Completed.
Running postrm hook script /usr/sbin/update-grub.
Generating grub.cfg ...
Found linux image: /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-44-generic-pae
Found initrd image: /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-44-generic-pae
Found linux image: /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-43-generic-pae
Found initrd image: /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-43-generic-pae
Found linux image: /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-42-generic-pae
Found initrd image: /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-42-generic-pae
Found linux image: /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-41-generic-pae
Found initrd image: /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-41-generic-pae
Found linux image: /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-40-generic-pae
Found initrd image: /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-40-generic-pae
Found linux image: /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-32-generic-pae
Found initrd image: /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-32-generic-pae
Found memtest86+ image: /memtest86+.bin
done
再在monitor里面看,/boot有50%大概107MB的空间了。
----
温顾而知新:root@will-Lenovo-V480s:~# sudo apt-get remove linux-image-3.5.0-3{1,7,9}-generic  #可以指定31,37,39三个版本。
参考:http://www.linuxquestions.org/questions/debian-26/how-do-i-get-rid-of-those-rc-packages-as-seen-in-dpkg-l-output-418956/
以上代码被我回顾了多次,最近我发现,dpkg出来的有的行是如示例中所说的以li开头的,还有的是以rc开头的。区别是,rc开头的是已经被删除了的,尽留有配置文件。可以用命令:dpkg -l | grep '^rc  linux-image-[0-9]'|cut -d ' ' -f3 来查看。
若想删除这些配置,可以参考一下代码(事实上,最后还是能从dpkg --list中找到这条信息):
root@will-Lenovo-V480s:~# dpkg -l | grep '^rc  linux-image-[0-9.]*-31'|cut -d ' ' -f3
linux-image-3.5.0-31-generic
root@will-Lenovo-V480s:~# dpkg -l | grep '^rc  linux-image-[0-9.]*-31'|cut -d ' ' -f3| xargs dpkg -P
(Reading database ... 468929 files and directories currently installed.)
Removing linux-image-3.5.0-31-generic ...
Purging configuration files for linux-image-3.5.0-31-generic ...
Examining /etc/kernel/postrm.d .
run-parts: executing /etc/kernel/postrm.d/initramfs-tools 3.5.0-31-generic /boot/vmlinuz-3.5.0-31-generic
run-parts: executing /etc/kernel/postrm.d/zz-update-grub 3.5.0-31-generic /boot/vmlinuz-3.5.0-31-generic
root@will-Lenovo-V480s:~# dpkg -l | grep '^rc  linux-image-[0-9.]*-31'|cut -d ' ' -f3
root@will-Lenovo-V480s:~#

Linux 下代码行数统计:
参考:Linux统计目录下文件个数及代码行数 http://www.esojourn.org/blog/read.php/315.htm
find role/ -name "*.js" |xargs cat|grep -v ^$|wc -l


另外,还看到有使用cloc进行代码统计的。也很实用。

how-do-i-get-the-history-of-apt-get-install-on-unbuntu     http://serverfault.com/questions/175504/how-do-i-get-the-history-of-apt-get-install-on-unbuntu
获取已经安装的包列表
dpkg --get-selections | sed -n 's/\t\+install$//p'
获取自动安装包的集合:
</var/lib/apt/extended_states awk -v RS= '/\nAuto-Installed: *1/{print$2}'
根据上面两个命令,获取手动安装的包集合:
comm -23 <(dpkg --get-selections | sed -n 's/\t\+install$//p') \
         <(</var/lib/apt/extended_states \
           awk -v RS= '/\nAuto-Installed: *1/{print$2}' |sort)
"The apt history is in /var/log/apt/history.log as said in a comment above. That said, this will not list packages that were installed manually, using dpkg or GUIs such as gdebi. To see all the packages that went through dpkg, you can look at /var/log/dpkg.log."

导出synaptic history log:
will@will-HP-Compaq-6520s:/var/log$ sudo -i
root@will-HP-Compaq-6520s:~# cd /root/.synaptic/log/
root@will-HP-Compaq-6520s:~/.synaptic/log# cat *.log >> /home/will/synapticHistory2013-3-1.log
root@will-HP-Compaq-6520s:~/.synaptic/log# vi /home/will/synapticHistory2013-3-1.log
Commit Log for Sun Jan  2 22:38:41 2011


Installed the following packages:
libpam-smbpass (2:3.5.4~dfsg-1ubuntu8.1)
samba (2:3.5.4~dfsg-1ubuntu8.1)
Commit Log for Sun Jan  2 22:56:54 2011


Installed the following packages:
flashplugin-installer (10.1.102.65ubuntu0.10.10.1)
Commit Log for Mon Jan  3 12:07:54 2011


Removed the following packages:
winbind
Commit Log for Mon Jan  3 12:08:17 2011


Upgraded the following packages:
winbind (2:3.5.4~dfsg-1ubuntu8.1) to 2:3.5.4~dfsg-1ubuntu8.1
Commit Log for Mon Jan  3 13:37:41 2011


Installed the following packages:
libreadline5 (5.2-7build1)
libruby1.8 (1.8.7.299-2)
vim-gnome (2:7.2.330-1ubuntu4)
vim-gui-common (2:7.2.330-1ubuntu4)
vim-runtime (2:7.2.330-1ubuntu4)
Commit Log for Mon Jan  3 17:26:07 2011


Installed the following packages:
unrar (1:3.9.10-1)
Commit Log for Wed Jan 19 13:18:50 2011


Installed the following packages:
emacs (23.1+1-4ubuntu7)
emacs23 (23.1+1-4ubuntu7)
emacs23-bin-common (23.1+1-4ubuntu7)
emacs23-common (23.1+1-4ubuntu7)
emacsen-common (1.4.19ubuntu1)
libanthy0 (9100h-6ubuntu1)
libgif4 (4.1.6-9)
libm17n-0 (1.5.5-1)
libotf0 (0.9.10-1)
m17n-contrib (1.1.10-1)
m17n-db (1.5.5-1)
Commit Log for Thu Feb 10 08:25:17 2011


Installed the following packages:
dkms (2.1.1.2-3ubuntu1.1)
fakeroot (1.14.4-1ubuntu1)
patch (2.6-2ubuntu1)
Commit Log for Thu Feb 24 11:06:14 2011


Installed the following packages:
hddtemp (0.3-beta15-46)
libsensors-applet-plugin0 (2.2.5-4ubuntu1)
sensors-applet (2.2.5-4ubuntu1)
Commit Log for Fri Feb 25 08:48:31 2011


Installed the following packages:
esound-clients (0.2.41-7)
esound-common (0.2.41-7)
libaudiofile0 (0.2.6-8ubuntu1)
libdca0 (0.0.5-3)
libenca0 (1.13-2)
libesd0 (0.2.41-7)
liblzo2-2 (2.03-2)
libmp3lame0 (3.98.4-0ubuntu1)
libopenal1 (1:1.12.854-2)
libsvga1 (1:1.4.3-29)
libvdpau1 (0.4-5ubuntu1)
libx264-98 (2:0.98.1653+git88b90d9-3ubuntu2)
libxvidcore4 (2:1.2.2+debian-1ubuntu2)
mplayer (2:1.0~rc4~try1.dsfg1-1ubuntu1)
Commit Log for Fri Feb 25 08:50:45 2011


Installed the following packages:
libmms0 (0.6-1)
Commit Log for Fri Feb 25 08:55:44 2011


Installed the following packages:
libdiscid0 (0.2.2-1)
libmusicbrainz3-6 (3.0.2-2)
smplayer (0.6.9-1)
smplayer-themes (0.1.20+dfsg-1)
smplayer-translations (0.6.9-1)
Commit Log for Sun Apr 10 15:50:46 2011


Installed the following packages:
openssh-server (1:5.5p1-4ubuntu5)
ssh (1:5.5p1-4ubuntu5)
Commit Log for Mon Jun 13 10:06:26 2011


Installed the following packages:
poppler-data (0.4.2-1)
Commit Log for Mon Nov 28 19:07:24 2011


Completely removed the following packages:
firefox

Removed the following packages:
firefox-branding
firefox-gnome-support
Commit Log for Mon Nov 28 19:25:07 2011


Installed the following packages:
firefox (8.0+build1-0ubuntu0.10.10.1~mfs2)
Commit Log for Wed Nov 30 20:14:01 2011


Reinstalled the following packages:
flashplugin-installer (11.1.102.55ubuntu0.10.10.1)
Commit Log for Sun Jan 15 14:02:01 2012


Reinstalled the following packages:
libx264-98 (2:0.98.1653+git88b90d9-3ubuntu2)
Commit Log for Sun Jan 15 14:11:10 2012


Installed the following packages:
nvidia-current (260.19.06-0ubuntu1)
nvidia-settings (260.19.06-0ubuntu1)
Commit Log for Thu Feb  2 16:59:51 2012


Installed the following packages:
p7zip-full (9.04~dfsg.1-1)
p7zip-rar (9.04~ds.1-1)
Commit Log for Thu Feb  2 17:02:02 2012


Installed the following packages:
p7zip (9.04~dfsg.1-1)
Commit Log for Fri Mar 23 10:38:47 2012


Installed the following packages:
libimlib2 (1.4.2-8)
w3m-img (0.5.2-6ubuntu1)
Commit Log for Sat Apr 28 16:26:58 2012


Installed the following packages:
libfaac0 (1.26-0.1ubuntu2)

关于“is not in the sudoers file. This incident will be reported”的解决:
因为用户will是正常的,可以使用sudo的,所以根据id查看will用户所属组,然后用usermod -G给用户dearwill添加相应的组,于是dearwill就可以使用sudo了。关键应该是放入了sudo组。
will@will-Lenovo-V480s:~$ id
uid=1000(will) gid=1000(will) groups=1000(will),4(adm),24(cdrom),27(sudo),30(dip),46(plugdev),107(lpadmin),124(sambashare)
will@will-Lenovo-V480s:~$ sudo -i
root@will-Lenovo-V480s:~# usermod -G will,adm,cdrom,sudo,dip,plugdev,lpadmin,sambashare dearwill

mkisofs的使用:将文件夹制作称镜像文件:
will@ubuntu12041:/data/Audios$ mkisofs -V IELTS_7_A -r IELTS_7_A > IELTS_7_A.iso
I: -input-charset not specified, using utf-8 (detected in locale settings)
  1.69% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:34 2013
  3.39% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:34 2013
  5.08% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:34 2013
  6.77% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:34 2013
  8.46% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:34 2013
 10.15% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:34 2013
 11.84% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:34 2013
 13.54% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:34 2013
 15.23% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:34 2013
 16.92% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:34 2013
 18.61% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:34 2013
 20.30% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:34 2013
 22.00% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:34 2013
 23.69% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:34 2013
 25.38% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:34 2013
 27.07% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:34 2013
 28.76% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:34 2013
 30.45% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:34 2013
 32.15% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:34 2013
 33.84% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:34 2013
 35.53% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:34 2013
 37.22% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:34 2013
 38.91% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:34 2013
 40.60% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:34 2013
 42.30% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:34 2013
 43.99% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:34 2013
 45.68% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:34 2013
 47.37% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:34 2013
 49.07% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:34 2013
 50.76% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:34 2013
 52.45% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:34 2013
 54.14% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:34 2013
 55.83% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:34 2013
 57.52% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:34 2013
 59.21% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:35 2013
 60.90% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:35 2013
 62.60% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:35 2013
 64.29% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:35 2013
 65.98% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:35 2013
 67.67% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:35 2013
 69.36% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:35 2013
 71.06% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:35 2013
 72.75% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:35 2013
 74.44% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:35 2013
 76.13% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:35 2013
 77.82% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:35 2013
 79.52% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:35 2013
 81.21% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:35 2013
 82.90% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:35 2013
 84.59% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:35 2013
 86.28% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:35 2013
 87.97% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:35 2013
 89.67% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:35 2013
 91.36% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:35 2013
 93.05% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:35 2013
 94.74% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:35 2013
 96.43% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:35 2013
 98.12% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:35 2013
 99.82% done, estimate finish Tue Dec 10 18:54:35 2013
Total translation table size: 0
Total rockridge attributes bytes: 833
Total directory bytes: 0
Path table size(bytes): 10
Max brk space used 0
295550 extents written (577 MB)
will@ubuntu12041:/data/Audios$

关于文件解压的中级应用及解压错误的补救

Linux 命令行下查看磁盘空间使用情况

关于/var/log/wtmp和last命令

svn 使用笔记


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